An electric golf cart is a vehicle with golfers and equipment on the track. The carts are designed to meet the requirements of golfers with advanced safety and comfort features. This allows them, for example, a small center of gravity that is built low down to the ground and prevents spilling over uneven terrain. A lot of electric carts with mobile chargers are also available. Sometimes in the central steering wheel, where the horn is natural, the metal clipboard, onto which players can fit their score cards. Electric Golf Buggies are small vehicles which use electricity, which are also known as golf cars. You can transport a small number of passengers in short distances and not more than 30 km/h at very low speeds. Since they are powered by electric energy in that they use charged batteries they come with advantages that make them so preferable than most carts especially the ones powered by gas or fuel. It is eco-friendly as it produces little to no carbon emissions (Todorovic et al., 2017). Compared to vehicles based on combustion engines, it is also easier and simpler to manage and maintain.
Figure 1. Golf cart model
Take this network into one player ‘s behavior to affect other players. In order to take this into account, we must weigh the short and long-term effects of decisions and the impact of the entire value chain. The circular economy applies these three dimensions to designing and selling electric golf buggies that ensure a sustained profit for the next 10 years. Electric cars provide the most environmentally friendly option in golf cars and related “people movers.” Electricity contaminates its lifetime in comparison with gas almost silently and economically. Regardless of many advantages, the main disadvantages are battery life and performance. However, these disadvantages can be reduced. Most people believe that electricity is too costly to manage, since it requires coal (Mersky et al., 2019). This is not the situation. This is not the situation. Power requires lower maintenance and moving parts, and consequently significantly lower running costs over the long term. For electric power, only a 15 Amp 120 Volt power supply is needed. In comparison to gas carts, harmful fuel must not be kept. The management of the materials and components used is crucial to the efficiency and profitability of the production of electric golf buggies. The use of the circular economy guarantees that this objective is achieved. A circular industrial economy is a closed loop industrial system that uses renewable resources, systems and services to keep the value of materials, components and products to the least extent possible. Increase in production and thus increase profits included the use of the circular economy in electro golf cart manufacturing.
Figure 2. Electric golf cart
MATERIAL SUSTAINABILITY DESCRIPTION
The drive determines the engine ‘s strength. It is like the brain that controls information and transfers batteries from the ignition switch to the engine. It may last up to 20 years for your golf cart engine. Repairs to its sustainability are sometimes required. Circular economic analysis simplifies maintenance than other components of control units and helps in repairing, recycling, and improving controls that are already used to meet the golf cart requirements. The control system is however often replaced by more power or collapses. New controllers are typically fine, but if you have an older model your golf cart controller can have symptoms and problems (Bİrcan et al., 2015).
Suspension seats are used for the protection and comfort of human health in cars of a wide variety of cars, especially when exposure to vibrations from the whole body. The rough terrain of the golf course results in the high vibrations of the wheels transmitted to the frame, the seat and the person sitting there. The elastic and damping connection between the chassis and framework reduces the vibrations transferred into the chassis because conventional electric golf carts do not have suspension seats. The person sat and sat down. Such a connection only reduces vibration partially and can still be uncomfortable to drive in a golf cart. The flexible and damping link between the frame and the seat connected to the electric battery allows the transmitted vibrations to be reduced (Version et al., 2019). The size increases the inertial effect of the mass through the tightness reduction in the vibration of the session.
This has an independent suspension with a double swing arm system, right and left, which swings independently without intervening. Solid ground adhesive strength up and down gives you a smooth, simple and relaxed driving experience. The uncommon suspension has one-body, flat and stable suspension with independent spring, and is extremely comfortable. For electric carts the Curtis smart frequency control system is used. This greatly increases the energy efficiency and energy protection factor and fully introduces features like quick up and downward traffic (Montréal et al., 2016). This has an independent suspension with a double swing arm system, right and left, which swings independently without intervening. Solid ground adhesive strength up and down gives you a smooth, simple and relaxed driving experience. The uncommon suspension has one-body, flat and stable suspension with independent spring, and is extremely comfortable. For electric carts the Curtis smart frequency control system is used. This greatly increases the energy efficiency and energy protection factor and fully introduces features like quick up and downward traffic.
Figure 3. Suspension type material
A cart frame that is known as a chassis, similar as the skeleton of an organism, is the main support structure for a motor vehicle that has all other components. Nearly every vehicle had a different structural frame from the 1930s. The design is known as the body frame. Almost all passenger vehicles were changed over time to a standard building with a chair and a bodywork. Nearly all trucks, buses and pickups still use a separate mounting frame. The blocks, bars and tubes are normally constructed from the frames of the golf carts. The boards may be made from plates of aluminum, glass fiber or steel. More parts are usually purchased and assembled by outside suppliers, normally plastic or metal. Those include components such as rubber tires, coiled vinyl seat cups, metal-built steering systems, motorcycles, brakes, batteries, transaxles, train suspensions, and electric wiring (Stahel, 2016). Electric vehicles should take the time to achieve high efficiency and also have decent brakes and long-lived steering knuckles with a minimum weight.
Figure 4. Typical cart chassis
The base of the cart is made of high strength, light weight, PP-plastic. It’s not going to be rusty. The whole cart is made of high resistance, shock resistance and more environmentally friendly PP plastics. It is an artificial leather which is waterproof, UV and scratch resistant and functions such as corrosion resistance inside the spiral. It is an artificial cotton with a very high elasticity. Complete automatic pulse charger built for the vehicle is used in the design. The loader is installed on the cart and the automatic winding machine (Guha et al., 2015).
The BLDC 4 kW drive is a 3-phased BLDC motor drive with a power output of up to 210 ah. It has been designed based upon state-of-the-art high-driven DSP technology, a low noise range, low vibration, a PID speed system, PID power loop protection, load protection, and manual speed control and automatic speed adjustment combinations. These engines control the speed and rpm range of the engine. The power and rotating speed of the transmitted motor is determined. The transmitting power and direction of the engine rotation are established. A nice cart, well maintained on the course, will build your complete confidence in the game so that golfers are serious about removing the external pieces. Wear, tear and weather also lead to carriage frame rust, teeth and bruises. Golf cart covers sometimes have a tear and need substitutions. The weather is responsible here too. With time, even the glorious sunlight view the color of your cart cover will decrease (Freeman & Weilnau, 2017). The windscreen of your cart may require a replacement if it is struck by rocks or low trees. The hollow stone is cracked sometimes by windshields.
Battery cables are also part of an electric golf cart, which needs to be examined with innovative materials in its construction and design. It can be removed by age and use. Corrosion is also involved in the battery cables, which can be troublesome for cables. Be sure to improve cable life by cleaning your battery’s corrosion and using the machine’s thought when preserving it. The replacement of the battery cable also takes account of thoughtful system technology and high quality and is perfectly suited for maintenance. High-strand cables are considered for best-quality cables (Naukowe et al., 2018). Each cart has an embrace to carry driving power into the wheels / field. Every cart of golf like cars has a club. The variable transmission of golf cart clutches (or CVT) is also known continuously. This transmission consists of two different clutches linked by a golf cart drive belt. The primary golf cart clutch and the secondary golf cart clutch are two clutches. The drive clutch is attached to the engine’s crankshaft, and the driven (secondary) clutch bolts to the cart entrance shaft. After using an accelerator pedal, Drive Clutch & Driven Clutch work together to smooth the way your golf cart progresses. A transmission is an electricity transmitter and controller (Afshin, 2018). For a layman, the transmission consisted of a series of gearboxes that use equipment and equipment trains to deliver torque transfers from a rotating power source to the output. An electrical golf cart will remove the need for the use of a single transmission with a power transmission and engine. Transaxle also uses a single reduction in speed. A transaxle is the differential mechanism for the rear-axle-hub transmission, that is used for direct mounting on the chassis. Various standard transaxles are possible with market with preset reducing equipment.
Figure 5. Battery cable set
Brakes are used to decrease the speed of the vehicle over a less workable span in order to popular the stability of the car. Both wheels should be stopped simultaneously and fitted with hydraulic disk brakes according to design requirements. The disk brakes are chosen via drums because they have a disc-breaker caliper mechanism that requires minimum disassembly to adjust the replaceable break-pads on the brake caliper mount. Another goal is to create a compact structure that can fit into the limited space between the wheel hub of a small cart and a wheel rim for a high-performance hydraulic disc brake assembly. The smart hybrid petroleum-electric device has a starting stop feature, which automatically stops the battery when power is out or when power is placed in the battery. For continuously variable rear axles drives, the transmission feature of the electrical cart is used. The transmission of stable and smooth carton rotations of the three-axis hard-dental surface gears assembled with different mechanics decreases tire wear. The casting box is small, robust and has good air tension without leakage of oil (Olson, 2015).
Due to the low maintenance requirements of golf carts solar powered, demand for electrically powered carts will increase in terms of value during its predicted period. The progress is expected to have a positive impact upon the growth of the world market for golf carts. In addition, the rising trend for golf and wide-ranging application of golf carts in the hospitality industry will increase demand for golf carts in the forecast period. The company therefore strategizes to ensure the highest priority is efficiency and creativity. Through the full application of systems thinking from the circular economy, the company wishes to set trends in the cart innovation sector. Using the available resources and at the same time reducing waste materials to below minimal amounts.
Another strategy that will ensure a more than 10year sustainability is the market analysis and implementation. The company has a planned structure to monitor key consumers and analysis reasons and motivational factors that make them desire the electric golf buggies. Increased carriage capacity is among aspects of the electric cart that the company wishes to modify in the attempt to attract lucrative consumers and maintain market supremacy.
Partnership with sporting clubs as well as churches to achieve easy mobility is another aspect that the company plans to reconstruct and expand. This will significantly strengthen the market share and in the event of expanded raw material support and advanced innovation, will put the company in the green light of the globe. Generally speedy, bulky and hard to assemble electric golf carts. In spite of these inconveniences, electric golf trolleys are sold annually worldwide. The basic design has not improved during the years; the inherent bulk and weight problems required only batteries and engines at the base of the trolley. An innovative smart wheel view to turn a trolley into an electrical one with two wheels and a remote. The carts are as lighter as possible and the weight and bulk are considerably reduced. In the future, the goal is to create an incredible world golf cart. The goal is to create a self-service wireless golf buggy. The main design requirement includes several elements in the field of electronics and incorporates it in the wheel sector, including engine, electronics, batteries and mechanics. Especially before reloading the system, it must be simple and operate for a whole day. For the end-to – end service a design model is created that can be generated in volume and converted into an approved commercial, electronic network.
Afshin, M. (2018). Receiver Side Control for Efficient Inductive Power Transfer for Vehicle Recharging. February.
Bİrcan, D. A., Selvİ, K., Ertaş, A., Yaltirik, A., Fakültesi, M. M., & Bölümü, M. M. (2015). Design and Analysis of Electrically Operated Golf Cart Chassis Using FEA Sonlu Eleman Analizi Kullanarak Elektrikli Golf Aracı Şasesi Tasarım ve Analizi. 30(June), 87–94.
Freeman, T., & Weilnau, K. (2017). Golf Cart Noise and Vibration Troubleshooting. https://doi.org/10.4271/2017-01-1891.Copyright
Guha, B., Haddad, R. J., & Kalaani, Y. (2015). Performance Impact Analysis of Solar Cell Retrofitted Electric Golf Cart. SoutheastCon 2015, April, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1109/SECON.2015.7132902
Mersky, A. C., Sprei, F., & Samaras, C. (2019). EFFECTIVENESS OF INCENTIVES ON ELECTRIC VEHICLE ADOPTION IN. 1–23.
Montréal, J., More, R., & Industryandbusiness, O. N. (2016). the Adoption Transportation The EV rEVolution is Here to Stay ! June.
Naukowe, Z., Śląskiej, P., & Transport, S. (2018). Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology . Series Transport. 99, 2–7.
Olson, E. L. (2015). The financial and environmental costs and benefits for Norwegian electric car subsidies : are they good public policy ? 1–37.
Stahel, W. R. (2016). Circular economy. 6–9.
Todorovic, M., Simic, M., & Kumar, A. (2017). ScienceDirect ScienceDirect Managing Transition to Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles Managing Transition to Electrical and Autonomous Vehicles. Procedia Computer Science, 112, 2335–2344. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2017.08.201
Version, A., Road, S., & Kingdom, U. (2019). Durham Research Online. 44(September). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.048.Abstract